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Boot Sole Center Gauge

The old adage “Measure Thrice, drill once” is applied to measuring, drilling and mounting bindings. A necessary part of the process is to double check ski mounting lines on both skis to verify accuracy. This step is typically overlooked when considering Boot Sole Centers.

Manufacturing errors, wear and tear and other factors may create an inaccuracy in the actual length and center of the boot.

As a simple tool to quickly verify the accuracy of your boot soles and there centers, here is a Ski Boot Sole Center Gauge that can be downloaded, printed and spliced at the Boot Center Line (after verifying scale) to set your boots on to check length and center mark accuracy.

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Paper or Clear Plastic Ski Binding Templates

A very useful resource for DIY binding mounting and comparisons is paper (or clear plastic) binding templates. Not only are they great aids for accurately laying out binding holes for drilling new holes, but you can also use them to compare existing hole clearances relative to new bindings, binding combinations and discovering unknown original bindings by the hole patterns on used skis.

Template Sources: Binding manufacturers often include templates in the box with new bindings (middle in image below).

Binding Freedom , the maker of stainless steel binding inserts has created a growing library of alpine and AT templates. (Bottom) Another insert manufacturer, Quiver Killer also is creating a template library (which may be edited versions of the Binding Freedom templates) along with other fastener downloads.

You can also draw your own (top). like we did with our CAD software, from a scan of the FKS/Pivot template provided by Look. It can be reprinted for multiple mounts and customized for different Boot Sole Lengths before printing.

Printing & Scaling: Accuracy is very important and the first step to verify printed templates is to check their relative scale and see how the actual bindings sit on the template to visually see if the holes align.

Check to see if the template has any scale or a dimension you can check with a ruler. Often the output from a printer can be slightly off for a variety of reasons. Scaling and reprinting may be necessary multiple times until you get it just right. If you cannot adjust the printing scale with your operating system or printing software, you may need to incorporate the use of graphics software that allows you to resize images and PDFs as needed before printing.

In the example above, the original print was off (too big) by 1mm in 200mm, or 0.5%. Since we needed to decrease the size of the print, we scaled the image 99.5% (199mm/200mm) to get the accurate result. If we needed to increase the output the same 0.5%, then we would need to set the printing scale at 100.5% (200mm/199mm).

For many the 0.5% discrepancy may be just fine, but if there are several layout, drilling and mounting steps off by 0.5% each, it’s possible to be off by a couple millimeters. On the other hand, sometimes minute errors cancel each other out and you can end up with dead on results despite the relative inaccuracies and many bindings do have built in adjustability. Regardless, it is best to be as accurate (especially for AT tech bindings) as you can with each step while also realizing this is not heart surgery and that these tolerances may actually be tighter than some shops and their binding mount jigs.

Splicing & Assembly: Because most bindings require variable Toe versus Heel piece locations due to variable foot and Boot Sole Length (BSL) AND the common printing length of 11 inches, usually two sheets are required per binding. As long as you locate each binding piece relative to the ski centerline and recommended or desired ski mount point and midsole boot mark, they can be utilized individually.

If you prefer to create one paper template per binding, you will need to print on a larger format printer or splice typical letter size sheets. Due to physical printer limitations, printing cannot occur to the paper edges. When two pieces need to be spliced, one piece will ideally need to be cut at the joint to assure accuracy during splicing (clear output does not need to be cut, unless desired).

Once one side is accurately cut, place it over the bottom sheet and a straight edge located along the center line. Align one edge and tape near the joint with masking tape to hold it close and still act as a hinge. Then align the other edge and the centerline of both sheets along the straight edge. Once this is correct, tape the other edge outside the center of the template. 

Double check the joint and the straightness of the centerline. If you can measure any components between the two halves, do so to verify accuracy. One thing we add on our templates is dimensions that we can measure to double and triple check physical and relative dimensions. After you feel certain the two halves are where they need to be, run a strip of clear tape over the joint on the front and then the backside.

Repeat on another pair if desired for one template per ski and cut off excess paper on the sides and ends. The masking tape will be removed in the process. The template(s) are now ready to be taped onto the ski centerline and mounting point at the boot mark.

Ski Centerline and Boot Sole Length and Mid Sole: As alluded to above, the binding mounting templates are relative to the centerline of the bindings and ski edges. The longer the centerline and straight edge, the more accurate the whole process will turn out. If you do not have a long straight edge, a piece of string secured on it’s ends works well. Typically, the two paper template sheets can slide along each other with a guide to align at the BSL. The BSL should be marked on the boot sole along with mid sole/mounting mark. If not, then measure the sole at the bottom from the tip of the toe to the heel. It’s probably a good idea to measure even if there is a a Boot Sole Center mark in the event there was a manufacturing error or general wear and tear of the soles. If unsure, further research may be required before attempting any of these steps and mounting your bindings.

The “|A” is the center boot mark and the “MM 298” is the BSL for the boot n the example below.

The boot center mark is placed over the green mounting line for the 298 MM BSL on the template.

Using a hole punch at the BSL line helps you to align the template at your mounting line:

Other Binding Template Uses: Also as mentioned, comparing existing bindings to new ones and screw hole offsets can be performed. Here is a download that compares the midsole of a 328mm boot sole (not by SlideWright) to see an excellent example of how can be facilitated. You can turn off and on the PDF layers to isolate various binding combinations.

And a video blasting through the steps putting a template together:















Here is a high speed video on cutting, splicing and taping paper or plastic templates. Pause as needed to see the steps as needed.

(Use the Space bar to pause, arrows to advance)

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Tools4Boards Tuning Kit Instructions

Waxing Skis and Snowboards
• Innovative
• Simple
• Inexpensive
• Fast


• Always wax in a well ventilated area.
• Never leave wax iron on unattended.
• Use ski and snowboard vises.
• Pay attention. Sharpened edges can be harmful.

Skis and Snowboards perform at their best when the edges and base are maintained on a
regular basis. Tuned skis & boards are much more fun and responsive!
The TOOLS4BOARDS TUNING STATION KIT comes with a high quality edge tool, file blades, file
brush and stone to remove excess side-wall material and bevel, sharpen and polish both the
side-edge and base-edge of skis and snowboards. Please refer to the edge tool instructions
included in this kit for details on proper edge tuning. Go to or your
Tools4Boards dealer for more information on tuning or to find kit replacement items.
Start with a well-ventilated, clean and unobstructed area free of debris. Use a ski and/or
snowboard specific vise mounted to the table-top of a solid workbench. The TOOLS4BOARDS
CINCH vise is ideal for holding both skis and boards. When traveling a portable tuning stand
like the TOOLS4BOARDS TERMINATOR is an ideal platform on which to mount vises.
Wash your hands and make sure your ski or snowboard is securely fastened base-up in the
vise. Run the sharp edge of the PLEXI SCRAPER down the length of the base to remove old wax
and dirt. Brush the base vigorously with a NYLON BRISTLE BRUSH and wipe the base clean with a
sheet of MAPLUS LINT-FREE TOWEL. Run the towel down the each edge to remove any rust
NOTE: To keep your scraper sharp use the edge tool included In the kit. Simply place the sidewall
cutter blade in the side-edge slot of the tool and with the bevel angle set to 0′, pull the
tool along the side of the scraper a few times to reestablish sharpness.
There are two methods used to further clean the base:
1) Rub the warm temp MAPLUS WAX (White) like a crayon covering the entire base with a thin
layer of wax to protect the base from initial contact with an iron to prevent scorching, then
using the MAPLUS WAX IRON or similar with the temperature setting around 120′ C and,
positioning the block of wax a few inches above the base, gently hold the wax against the iron
to start the wax dripping. Move the iron along a few inches above the entire length of the base
direction 3 times so there are 3 lines of wax from tip to tail. Run the iron down the length of
the base and keeping the iron moving make a few passes (each pass around 5-10 seconds) to
melt the wax into the base. A thin layer of liquid wax Should now coat the entire base. Wait a
few minutes until the wax begins to harden and then use the plexi scraper to scrape the soft
warm wax off the base. Removing this soft wax wilt also remove dirt and contamination and
clean the
base. Brush the base vigorously with a NYLON BRISTLE BRUSH and wipe the base clean with a
NOTE: If the wax smokes the iron temperature setting is too high. Always keeping the iron
moving along the length of the base to prevent burning or scorching of the base material.
2) Use MAPLUS CLEAN wax removing detergent spray to cover the length entire base and then
wipe clean using a sheet of MAPLUS LINT-FREE TOWEL. Brush the base vigorously with a NYLON
NOTE: To remove any micro hairs from the base material run the SCOTCHBRITE NYLON
ABRASIVE PAD down the length of the base, rubbing and pressing.
NOTE: To re-establish base structure, simply wrap 3M SAND PAPER around one length of the
PLEXI SCRAPER, then make a few passes down the length of the base pressing the paper against
the base materiaL
Depending on snow temperature rub on either MAPLUS HOT (White -5′ to O· C) or Cold (Green
·10 to -5′ C) temp universal paraffin wax like a crayon over the entire base to create an even
wax layer. Then cork in the wax by vigorously rubbing and pressing the cork back and forth
along the length of the base or, if a wax iron is available, set the iron temperature to around
120· C and, positioning the block of wax a few inches above the base, gently hold the wax
against the iron to start the wax dripping. Move the iron along a few inches above the entire
length of the base reversing direction 3 times so there are 3 lines of wax from lip to tai. Run
the iron down the length of the base and keeping the iron moving make a few passes (each
pass around 5-10 seconds) to melt the wax into the base. A thin layer of liquid wax should now
coat the entire base. Wait 20 minutes until the wax has hardened and ski or board has
completely cooled and then use the plexi scraper to scrape most of the wax off the base. Run
one end of the scraper down each side of the ski or board edge to remove any excess wax that
may have overflowed onto the sides when ironing.
NOTE: Ironing wax into the base is the most effective way to apply wax to maximize
performance and durability. Consider investing in a MAPLUS WAX IRON if you don’t already own
NOTE: If the wax smokes the iron temperature setting is too high. Always keeping the iron
moving along the length of the base to prevent burning or scorching the base material.
Using multiple overlapping strokes in one direction from tip to tail, vigorously brush the base
until shiny using a NYLON BRISTLE BRUSH. The more you brush the faster you go.
Always use  ALPINE SKI STRAPS to protect bases and prevent skis from scissoring during

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Tools4Boards XACT 3 in 1 Tool Instructions


Xact All-in-one sharpens and bevels side edge, base edge and trims excess side wall. Simply turn knob to clamp file, or pull and turn knob to adjust bevel angle. Patented adjustment feature provides simple and accurate bevel angles. Ceramic rollers minimize friction and allow filings to fall away from base. Infinite bevel angle adjustment from 0° to 6°. Comfortable to use. Made of durable and impact resistant Lexan polycarbonate. Holds any length file or stone for side edges and includes high quality Swiss-made file blade for side and base edges.

Tools4Boards XACT 3 in 1 Edge Tuning Tool Instructions or click on image below.



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Glide Waxing and Anti-Icing Backcountry Climbing Skins

As counter-intuitive as it sounds, glide waxing climbing skins improves efficiency while backcountry touring. By improving the glide and preventing ice build-up and snow clumping, wax may quicken your pace while reducing effort. On rolling slogs improving the speed you carry on slight downhills is a nice benefit and in some cases, you won’t need to spend the time to remove skins for a short slope and then need reattach them.

Rub-on solids, paste, liquid and spray waxes are easy to apply and coat the skin fibers, but are short lived compared to hot waxing solid glide wax. Like adding heat to wax applications on skis and snowboards, you will typically achieve higher durability (read, longer glide). Of course there is the concern of adding too much heat and possibly damaging your skins or melting the skin glue. But by using as low of a temperature you can to melt and apply the wax of the day (same as on your ski or splitboard bases) to the skin, you can benefit from the easy process as shown in this Toko video. Follow it with a light brushing against the nap after the wax cools to open the nap again.

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SkiVisions File Base Flattener

(Updated 11/7/12: Revised instruction and NEW instruction videos at the bottom of the page)

The File Base Flattener is a powerful planing tool that uses a file to flatten concave (railed, edge high) snowboards and skis.  It is a different application from the steel blade in the Base Flattener, the steel blade is for fine flattening work, the File Base Flattener’s purpose is to cut through concave metal and plastic quickly.

New boards and skis always have some concave sections; they must be flattened for the board or ski to function correctly. A base that is concave makes the board or ski grabby and hooky, not smooth.  They make edge-to-edge transfers difficult and sticky.  You cannot relax on a concave base; you always have to be prepared for its next bad surprise.

From the top, you can see this is a two-hand push tool (for both power and control), with your rear hand on the larger bump.  ALSO OBSERVE THE STRIP OF WHITE PAINT ON THE LEADING EDGE OF THE FILE, THE FILE MUST BE USED IN THE TOOL WITH THE WHITE PAINT AS SHOWN SO THAT THE FILE TEETH ARE IN THE CORRECT CUTTING DIRECTION.

From the bottom side you see a 7-inch double cut file held in place with a  powerful magnet.  The front of the tool has a glide bar so the file sits flat to the base.  Notice again that the file has a strip of white paint on the leading edge, the file must be placed in the tool with that white strip facing forward as shown.  If the file is in the tool backwards it won’t cut your base and using it that way will dull it quickly.

Several points to keep in mind when using this tool:

1.  Always use the tool in the tip to tail direction.

2.  Use only moderate pressure, the file will cut metal and plastic without excess effort.

3.  Use only light pressure when running the tool off the tail, otherwise a) the file can get popped off the magnet, and b) the file will dig into the plastic at the curve of the tail and leave file marks in the plastic.

4.  Clean the file teeth after each pass with the supplied brush, only clean teeth will cut.

5.  If the file gets clogged with wax, use wax remover with the brush to clean them.

6.  If the File Base Flattener isn’t cutting edge metal on concave skis or boards,   then you have hardened edges, that hardening can only be removed with the green stones in the Ski Sharp.  See Tuning New Skis in the index for a discussion and procedures for this problem.

When used on snowboards, you flatten one edge at a time; observe the position of the tool on the board.  You are cutting from the center of the base through the outside of the edge.  But remember, since the board is concave, the tool is really cutting just the high plastic and metal near the outside edge of the board.

You take one pass down one of the edges, clean the file out with the brush that is supplied with the tool, then take a pass down the other edge, always rotating edge to edge so that the tool is used in a balanced approach and the board gets flattened consistently.

You will feel the file cutting the metal edges as you work.  You will also feel when the file no longer cuts metal, that tells you that the edge is then flush with the plastic base.  However, the board may still have some amount of concavity.  To bring the base to a totally flat condition because plastic needs to be removed, use the SkiVisions Snowboard Base Flattener with the stone blade.  You will have to rotate between both file and stone Base Flatteners to remove both plastic and metal if the base is significantly concave.

So how flat does a snowboard need to be?

1.  If the board is concave, you can get it flat enough with the File Base Flattener and it will work well on the snow even if there is some concavity in the plastic.  That concavity will soon wear away as you use the board.  And remember, if you use base edge bevel (as you should, see Snowboard Edge Tuning) any concavity on the base will be reduced in effect by base edge bevel.

2.  If the board is convex (rounded) you want to remove plastic and bring the board to a flat condition with the Snowboard Base Flattener using the 12-inch stone blades, convex bases do not work well on snowboards.  (See Snowboard Edge Tuning)

Use your true bar frequently to check your progress, you don’t want to over-do.  You will also be able to tell how you are progressing by how the tool acts as you start to get flat.

It is both a very aggressive tool and very easy to use, but don’t get carried away.  Take it slow, check your work often; you will get it flat soon enough.

When used on a ski, the file covers the surface edge to edge.  However, you can also use it on only one edge at a time as used on snowboards, this can make the flattening process go faster.  But again, remember, go slow, check your work often, don’t over-do.

Only moderate pressure needs to be used on the tool, it does not require “muscling it”.  And remember, only light pressure when running off the tail (see above).

See Ski Base Flattener for a thorough discussion on flattening bases.

Concave Bases, the first problem:

New skis and boards ALWAYS have concave sections.  They are caused by the manufacturer not letting it cool and age before grinding it, or by shipping it in very hot cargo carriers.  Regardless of the reason, the concave sections need to be removed for it to work right.  They may look great when new, don’t be fooled.  Oh, and when you go to the shop to buy, take your true bar and inspect (a ruler will do if not too flexible).  Buy the one with the flattest base and save yourself a lot of trouble.

The File Base Flattener is the only hand tool up for the job.  It is powerful (you can easily put 50 to 60 pounds of pressure on the tool) and uses a very sharp double cut file designed to simultaneously cut plastic and edge metal.  It is the “heavy machinery” of hand tools.

When factories grind skis and boards, they chase speed and efficiency.  Unfortunately, that also translates into work hardened edges and plastic caused by too much speed and pressure with the stone, and it can become a real challenge getting the tune on a new ski or board right.

Hardened steel edges are hardened on the surface only, about .001 of an inch, very shallow.  But, until it is removed, files, carbides, or steel will not cut it.  It is best removed with our 4 inch green stone with tape wrapped on one end for bevel.  Whenever you have concave bases you generally also have hardened edge sections.

If you observe that the File Base Flattener isn’t working, that is, isn’t flattening the base, you have hardened edges.  You can tell when the edges just seem to get slick and shiny but aren’t getting cut with the file teeth, because they can’t.

Sometimes it is a good idea to mark the concave edge sections with a felt tip marker so you can concentrate on those areas and watch your progress.

The following videos show using the File Base Flattener:

SkiVisions Using our File Base Flattener Part 1

SkiVisions Using our File Base Flattener Part 2

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SkiVisions Edge Tuning Tool

(Updated 11/7/12: Revised instruction and NEW instruction videos at the bottom of the page)

The SkiVisions Ski Sharp Edge Tuning Tool is a complex, multi-adjustable device, disguised as a simple, user friendly tool.  Its purpose is to give superb edge tuning results without requiring sophisticated edge tuning knowledge or skills; the tool itself provides the sophistication.

The Ski Sharp’s effectiveness is a combination of design (it works on both the side and base edge simultaneously) and the inserts (files, stones of different materials for different purposes and grits, and carbides) to give the desired edge sharpness and polish.

The Tuning Stick, which comes with the Ski Sharp, lets the novice or the expert precisely analyze the condition of the edges before tuning, the progress during tuning, and the sharpness and polish of the edge  desired at completion.

Is ski tuning with the Ski Sharp expensive?  Absolutely not.  It is true that you have to make an initial capital investment in the tool and inserts, but thereafter, all inserts  are re-sharpenable and RARELY need replacement.


It is the only edge tool ever designed and patented (#4,850,252) that sharpens both the base side of the edge and the side edge simultaneously, and at the same time has independent bevel selections for each edge from 0 to 3 degrees.  Say you want 1 degree base edge bevel and 3 degree side; no problem.  Also:

  • Edge bevels are absolutely precise and edge metal is polished
  • The tool is incredibly quick and easy to use
  • The tool requires no skill, especially when stones (we prefer) are used


Although flat bases are important, it is edge tuning that makes skis act magically.  A perfectly tuned edge has three characteristics:

1.  Grip.   The ability of the ski to grip the snow at an appropriate level for the snow conditions is very important — not too grippy in soft snow, but plenty of bite in hard snow.

2.  Slip.  This is the truly elusive component in edge tuning.  A ski must be able to slip if it is to be skied dynamically.  The great Alberto Tomba, who skied with incredible power, always had the same complaint when he lost a race: “My skis were too sharp!”  As powerfully as he skied, he still couldn’t overcome their “stickiness”; his tuner did not know how to tune for slip.  What is an example of slip? You are half way through a turn and suddenly your line won’t work.  A ski that won’t slip will lock you on that failed line.  Best case, you make a bad turn, worse case, this can get very dangerous to your ACL if you are locked on and get in the back seat. Bottom line, you don’t work an over-sharp edge, it works you. An edge that will slip will let you make very quick, micro adjustments to change to a line that works. Even though the ski is fully loaded and arcing a carve, just a slight flattening of your foot is all it takes to allow you to adjust your line.  The trick is to tune in both bite and slip.  You can do it, but only when you know that is your objective.  These instructions will show you how. The amount of sharpness is your call, since everyone is different.  But if you find you can’t flatten your foot a little and adjust your line, your skis are too sharp.

Snow conditions dictate how to tune for slip.  It may seem illogical, but new snow has very little slip, so you have to build slip into the edge tune.  That is why new snow requires a very polished edge or the they will be sticky and reluctant to slip.

Old snow on the other had has lots of slip.  You can run with far sharper edges and final polish is not so critical.

Everything in between new and old snow becomes a judgment call and personal taste plays a big part in the decision.

3.  Glide.  Edges, like bases, need to glide and act slippery.  Polished edge metal gives you that good glide, and the newer the snow, the more important the polish.

We think of ski edges as fine cutlery, nothing less.

For years we have had the above summary about grip, slip and glide.  Some of our customers understand it, some find it confusing.  So, let us try to attack this from a different angle.

Optimum edge tuning is very elusive until you find the benchmark, which is not obvious.  But, when you find the benchmark, you own the answer.

It is not an intellectual question; it can only be determined by personal experience, and your personal edge tuning experiments.

You analyze your muscles as you ski.  That is where the secret is embedded, deep in your quads, where the benchmark hides.

Your muscles need to be relaxed and fluid.  That is a product of your correct edge tuning.  A ski that holds you up in the turn with just enough muscle input to effortless hold you up and allow you to steer your skis.  But JUST barely enough.

If you are inputting EXTRA muscle just to hold you up in hard snow without slipping your edges are too dull, and, you will quickly wear down your muscle resiliency for the wrong reason.

Conversely, inputting extra muscle to try and force your over-sharp and sticky into the turn edges, your tuning is wrong also.  Again, muscles need to be relaxed and fluid.  Over-sharp and sticky edges eat muscle resiliency as efficiently as dull edges do, you tire yourself from fighting your edges.  And, they are far more dangerous than dull edges, especially to your ACL.

Where you can carve hard snow with a relaxed body, both as to confidence in your skis to grip, and confidence that your skis still have the right amount of slip, so your muscles can be relaxed and fluid, that is the benchmark, and it is easy to analyze.  Once you know this, you own it.


1.  Engineering.  First, the tool may appear simple, but it is a compilation of sophisticated engineering.  In over 25 years, no other ski tool has come close to duplicating it.  Second, the inserts, simple and precise.

2.  Instructions.  Edge tuning can be complex.  We simplify the process by carefully giving thorough instructions, both the why’s and how’s of edge tuning.  Nobody beats the thoroughness of our instructions.

How To Use

First, the purpose of the Ski Sharp is to maximize efficient edge tuning results.  None of us have time to waste.  We need results and we need them quickly.

Decide the amount of bevels you want for your base and side edges and turn the long screws at the bottome of the tool until the indicator bar shows you those degrees for both.  It is that simple and accurate.

When you apply the tool to the edges there are two types of strokes you can use, a single pass down the ski, which we don’t recommend, especially when using the stones, and over-lapping strokes, which we do recommend.  An over-lapping stroke is a forward stroke of up to 16 inches in length, then a back-stroke of about 12 inches, another forward stroke of 16 inches, etc., which means you are slowly moving down the ski by the difference is stroke lengths.  We prefer long smooth strokes rather than short choppy ones.  Do not pressure on the back stroke (see below).

It is important to know how to do the back-stroke.  If you are using files or the Carbide Skiver, don’t pressure the tool on the back-stroke because doing so will wear the insert out quickly.  On the other hand, you should pressure the tool on the backstroke when using any of the stones because the back-stroke does not cause them any additional wear, since they work in both directions.

Always remember, when using the Ski Sharp, use just a light touch. You don’t have to muscle the tool as the inserts will do the job without needing excessive hand pressure.

Finally, you have to decide your edge tuning strategy, so let’s review some basics :

1.  It is a good idea to designate your skis as left or right.  If we do that we only need to tune the two inside edges. The outside edges are beveled and kept polished, but never sharpened.  Sharp outside edges do you no good when skiing so sharpening them both wastes time and puts wear on the inserts and the edges.

2.  By keeping your outside edges polished and fresh, but not routinely sharpened, you can switch to them, designating them the new inside edges, when the previous inside edges get tired, rock damaged, etc. The outside edges will be new, fresh, and ready to be tuned as the new inside edges.  And, this approach saves lots of ski tuning time.  We mark the inside tip on the base side with a MarksaLot or a white paint pencil (depending on the base color) so we can see it easily when tuning.

Edge Tuning Procedures:

1.  Check your edge sharpness with the tuning stick (See All About the Tuning Stick below). Do so all along the edge because you need to know your starting point.  You will find the ski dullest under foot, with progressive sharpness out towards the tip and tail, exactly what you don’t want.

2.  Sharpen and de-burr with the green stones.  Use the procedure outlined below under Zoning It is the most important tuning procedure to follow. Start under-foot, not at the tip, and start polishing the edges with a back and forth movement with the Ski Sharp with just light pressure on the tool. The stones don’t need pressure to cut, you can feel them cutting and polishing through the Ski Sharp.  After about 5 back and forth passes under-foot, slowly start working your way out towards the tip and tail, adding more distance out after every several passes, until you have progressed all the way to tip and tail.

3.  Check the edge sharpness with the Tuning Stick, you should now find that the edge has become sharpest under-foot, with progressively less sharpening out towards the tip and tail.  This is exactly what you want.  The bite of the ski comes from its ability to bite under-foot.  Keep in mind, when you are tuning with stones, you are never removing excess edge metal as you can do with files — you are only removing enough to make them just right.

4.  If the edge is not as sharp as you want, you have two choices.  We first like to use the green stones to see if the correct sharpness can be achieved with them.  If not, and this is important, put a file or a Carbide Skiver in just the side file pocket, keep a stone in the base file pocket.  Again, start under-foot several passes and then work outwards towards tip and tail just as you did previously.  Don’t over-do!  Also, keep in mind, when you generally tune your edges with stones, the metal remains conditioned and cuts easily  with files or carbides. A little of this procedure goes a long way.  Stop frequently and check your progress with the Tuning Stick.  Then, return to the green stones and re-do the edge again, starting under-foot and working your way out.  By now you should have a very sharp edge with a micro burr.

5.  Edge polishing is next; the desire for the amount of polish varies both from skier to skier and the snow conditions.  This also is the point where the Tuning Stick really performs.  In new, fresh cold snow, always polish.  In old, icy, or hard man-made snow, you may like the finish of the green stones, they give you a distinct communication or feel of your edges on the snow. Highly polished edges won’t do that.  Everything in between is personal preference, you have to experiment and find what you like.

6.  Polishing tip and tail.

The final edge tuning step is to polish off the sharpness of the edges at tip and tail.  If the edges are sharp at the tip and tail they will be grabby and the skis difficult to control.  We recommend polishing the tip and tail plus one inch past the contact point, which is the point at which the skis are the widest at tip and tail.  When polishing one inch behind the contact point (going towards the bindings) you give the ski a little extra forgiveness without sacrificing performance.  The picture shows detuning at a 45 degree angle polishing the tip of the edge with our ruby ceramic polishing stone.  Once this is done they only need to be re-polished periodically if you use the Ski Sharp with our recommended techniques.

Does this seem like a lot?  It is not.  It takes us just several minutes to tune the edges of a pair of skis for the day.  Once everything is set up correctly, the daily work is very quick.  (see “Tuning Routines” in the Index)

All About Bevels

First, let’s look at exactly what bevels do:

1.  Base edge bevel makes a ski more forgiving and the edges less “sticky”.  They feel as if they have better glide and they transition better in the turns, so you “catch” edges less frequently.  Generally, this translates into a quicker and more forgiving ski, giving you greater confidence.  However, if a little is good, more is not better. Greater base edge bevel will make your edges feel less sharp on hard snow because they have to be angled higher for the tip of the edge to be able to bite.  You have to experiment to find what you like, and the snow conditions where you ski will influence your decisions.  For instance, hard snow skiers generally like less, powder skiers more base edge bevel.

2.  Side edge bevel has only one purpose: to adjust the sharpness of the edge, the greater the bevel (say 3 degrees) the harder the ski will bite, which is good for hard snow but too much for soft snow.  The hardness of the snow where you generally ski dictates how much side edge bevel to use.  Keep in mind, on the side edge, 1 degree is also 89, 2 degrees is also 88, and 3 degrees is also 87, all depending on your point of view.

3.  Beveling purposes and effects are no more complicated than that.  The Ski Sharp, together with the Base Flattener,  lets you experiment to find what you like.

4.  So what are the bevel selections for a very sharp ski?  Base edge bevel at 0 and side edge bevel at 3.  A selection that should only be made by very hard snow skiers.  This selection also makes for a very unforgiving ski, particularly if your boot canting is not correct.

5.  So what are the bevel selections for a relatively dull ski for soft snow and powder?  Base edge bevel at 2 and side edge bevel at 0.  This keeps the ski from biting too hard in soft snow.

You should always first tune your ski according to the manufacturer’s original bevel settings; your ski shop can get this information from the factory rep if it is not well known.  Using the Ski Sharp to maintain factory bevels is very easy to get started with when using the tool.  If you find you want the ski to act differently than it does with the factory settings, experiment, it is a little work, but well worth the effort, especially as you develop your own tastes.

Only the files or Carbide Skiver will cut in bevels, not the stones.  The files are OK for that purpose, but if you do a lot of edge tuning, get one carbide skiver – it will last virtually forever and cuts in precise bevels.

Only one edge bevel should be set at a time, particularly when cutting in base edge bevel.  That means only one file or Carbide Skiver in the base file pocket.  It is best to have nothing in the side file pocket when first cutting in base edge bevel, you want to feel the cut, and in particular, you want to feel when the cut is finished Then you know the bevel is set. Base edge bevel is cut in until the file or carbide skiver stops cutting. Both the feel of the tool in your hand and the sound it makes (or doesn’t make) will tell you when the bevel is cut in.

Side edge bevel is cut in using a file or Carbide Skiver in the side pocket and preferably a stone in the base pocket.  To cut in side edge bevel you can usually plan on taking about 10 passes per edge, but you cannot measure your progress, and the file or carbide will just keep cutting, so limit the number of passes down the ski – don’t get carried away.

Keep in mind, when you are cutting in bevels, you are creating micro burrs, and those burrs can only be taken out with lots of polishing the edges with stones, the finer the better.

Remember, once your bevels are cut it, they will keep their angles with normal tuning.  If you just tune with stones, you may want to check the base edge bevel periodically with a file or carbide, but the Ruby Sharpening Stones will generally maintain bevels through regular tunings.

All About the Tuning Stick

The Tuning Stick which comes with the Ski Sharp is a simple plastic rod, but don’t be fooled, it is a sophisticated analytical tool, it allows you to precisely “read” the sharpness of your edges and the presence of micro burrs.

As you are tuning your edges,  it is easy to get “lost”, that is, not really know where you are. The Tuning Stick solves that problem because it will always tell you the sharpness and burred condition of your edges, and you can always get consistency from ski to ski.  It takes the guessing game out of edge tuning.

Before you begin tuning, check your edges with the Tuning Stick.  You will see how they are more dull under foot than out towards tip and tail.  You will also find out that, unless you are in soft snow, one day is all it takes to lose the sharpness under foot and, keep in mind, under foot is where you want your ski to be sharp; it is where all the skis’ grip and bite and “sting” comes from.

Once you start using the Tuning Stick, you will quickly realize the benefits of frequent tunings. Daily is the norm unless the snow is soft.  You spend a great deal of effort and money to get on the hill, not taking every advantage once there does not make sense, tuning really pays when it comes to on the hill fun.  And once you get the hang of it, it only takes a few minutes.

We HAD to develop the tuning stick because our edge tuning techniques and advice are unconventional, so we needed to develop and easily observable way to analyze edges while they are being tuned and which could be used to parallel our advice without guesswork.  Hence, the tuning stick was developed for that purpose.

Our edge tuning methods are totally inconsistent with other tuning advice you are likely to hear, even the names the other tool manufacturers choose for tools indicate that they really don’t have a clue what edge tuning is really about.  In edge tuning, more is not better.  Better is better, and better only comes from an approach where ski edges are honed with precision and polish, not a mangling, using a tool size and insert lengths that interface correctly with shaped skis.

“Zoning” the sharpness of the edge, as discussed below, can only be repeated ski to ski if you have the capability of analyzing the edge; zoning cannot be executed effectively without the Tuning Stick.

Hold the Tuning Stick at 45 degrees to the edge and push down on the stick (don’t pull it up) with moderate pressure, something more than just light pressure, and shave plastic.  The Tuning Stick will give you three sensory  observations (see below) which allows you to be very precise with your edge tuning.  If you only use light pressure on the stick you will only be reading the burr, heavier pressure really shows you how the ski will bite, especially in hard snow.

When the Tuning Stick is scraped on the edge, it gives you a great deal of feed-back such as:

1.  If the edge is sharp and polished, the edge will shave plastic off the stick in a smooth and consistent manner, its sound will be smooth and consistent, and it will vibrate a little.

2.  The amount of shaved plastic will demonstrate the level of sharpness and is easy to observe.

3.  If the edge is dull, it will not shave plastic, and the dullness will be very apparent.

4.  If the edge is burred it will shave plastic very aggressively, and the Tuning Stick will also vibrate and make a squealing sound.

5.  The Tuning Stick gives you three sensory observations, visual (observe shavings), feel (vibration), and sound (range of smooth scraping to squealing).  There is no comparable method for analyzing your edges.

One of the problems with the Tuning Stick is that tuners can become so intrigued by it, and the way it shaves plastic, that they have a tendency to over-sharpen their skis, to over-tune their skis, playing with the stick.  If you notice yourself doing this, back off.

Keep in mind, the construction of your ski will determine how sharp you can tune it; it is a little known fact that not all skis can take the same sharpness.  Skis that are very damp can be tuned much sharper than skis without much dampening (powder skis and the like).  Why is this the case?  Because skis without dampening vibrate when you set your edges in hard snow, they then literally vibrate out of your edge set (you lose grip). If you tuned those edges very sharp, they then immediately bite in again but again vibrate out of the edge set.  Consequently, you get a very rough and unstable ride.  A dampened ski will bite with the edge set and won’t vibrate out, so the edge set holds for a great carving turn.  The point is, if you have an un-dampened ski, don’t try to make it a hard snow ski by making it very sharp, you won’t like the result.

Also, if you use your skis on the rails, you ruin your edges and they can’t be kept properly sharpened.  We suggest that if you like the rails, get a dedicated pair of skis and don’t bother tuning them, and never use your good skis on rails.

The Tuning Stick as a “Management” Tool

This is a special note to racers or others who don’t tune their own skis.  Even if you don’t tune your own skis, you need to be able to analyze your edges to see if they are properly prepared.  The Tuning Stick is your best way to do it.  You will be able to precisely analyze the job your tuner is doing for you, and, you can learn exactly how you like your edges.  In other words, you are no longer a “victim” of your tuner.  And, if you can’t get what you want, you might have to do it yourself, but then it is easy, we show you how.

The reason ski racers are so prone to blowing out  ACLs is because no slip is tuned into their skis.  Now we have no doubt every racer says, I don’t want any slip, it will slow me down, won’t let me hold a carving edge, won’t let me hold the arc of the ski, etc.  CORRECTLY TUNED IN SLIP DOES NOT COMPROMISE ANY OF THOSE CONCEPTS.  You can still carve without slipping, but you have a far larger quiver of possibilities when you have some slip built into your edges.

When skis have no slip it is easy to get caught in the back seat in a way that prevents the possibility of escape — you just keep getting dragged deeper into the back seat, until POP.  Goodbye ACL.  Slip gives you a degree of safety as well as agility and quickness.  Use the Tuning Stick to not only manage your tuning, but to also manage your safety!

You want to win races?  You think speed is about waxing?  Nope.  Winning is about confidence, that confidence comes from your edge tune, proper waxes just makes the most confident go faster.  Our edge tuning techniques are all about confidence in our skis, their performance is predictable, the edges have grip, slip and glide as we discuss.  And when you have absolute confidence in your edges, you are in the mental condition to win, to enter the zone.


If you really “get” that edge tuning is a perfect balance of grip, slip and glide, and you learn how to effectively analyze your edges with the Tuning Stick, the last step is “zoning”, the method to make your skis magical.

Ideal ski tuning makes it float like a butterfly, sting like a bee.  If you want that effect, zoning is required.  The beauty of the SkiVisions approach to zoning, though, is that it is easy; anyone can do it!  The sting comes from a sharp ski edge under-foot and the float comes an edge that is progressively less sharp out towards the ends.

So how do you zone tune the edges?  Let’s say the running surface of the ski is 60 inches in length. That can be broken down into approximately three 20 inch sections and tuned as follows:

1.  The 20 inch section under-foot is tuned sharp.

2.  The other 20 inch sections (shovel section in front, tail section in rear) are tuned progressively less sharp.  That is done by using overlapping strokes with the Ski Sharp wherein you do fewer repeats as to move towards the tip or tail. Fewer repeats means less work on the edge and less sharpening.

This is point loading.  There is nothing new with the concept of point loading and ski tuning, but the SkiVisions approach is both unique and the most effective method of producing and controlling point loading using the Ski Sharp, Tuning Stick, and the SkiVisions tuning techniques.

Keep in mind, when zone tuning the edges, frequently checking your progress with the Tuning Stick is critical to track your progress and to accurately compare your edge tuning from ski to ski.

The Ski Sharp Inserts

Ski Sharp Files.  These are the newest Ski Sharp files as of 10/2012.  They are designed to give aggressive edge cutting yet excellent finish.  It is the biggest, most aggressive file we have ever made for the Ski Sharp.  Note the black dots, the file must be placed in the tool with the dots facing the same direction and the tool used in that direction.  Files only cut in one direction.  This is not a chrome plated file so it can be re-sharpened  with the acid soak method shown in the maintenance video.
If you look carefully at the files in the picture you will see dots of black markings at the leading edge of  each file.  IT IS IMPORTANT THAT YOU FOLLOW THIS INSTRUCTION.  Those dots need to be facing the same direction and the tool needs to be also used in that direction for the files to cut edge metal.

It is important that you use the files in the correct direction only and that you do not pressure the tool on backstrokes when using over-lapping strokes; pressuring a file against its cutting teeth (facing the wrong direction) wears it out quickly.

Brush the metal filings out of the file teeth frequently. If they are loaded up they won’t cut.

When using the files, an important technique is not fully insert the file in the side edge pocket, but rather, to drop it down so that more of the file teeth are used. (See Maximizing the Life of the Inserts below)

The sharpening stones only work if you continually adjust the stones to a fresh section of stone.

This picture shows a Ruby Ceramic Stone that is NOT fully inserted in the side edge pocket.  It is important to move the side edge inserts up and down in the pocket frequently to maximize the life of the insert and to keep using fresh stone sections to maximize its performance.  The inserts also need to be rotated in the pockets to further maximize their usefulness.

So, after each pass down one ski edge, adjust the stones to a fresh section and continue.  Frequently changing the stones’ position to fresh stone grit is the secret of sharpening with stones.

Green Stones.  The green stones are aggressive silicon carbide stones that love to eat hard metal.  They are intended to replace files for general edge sharpening purposes.

NEW SKIS.  See the index regarding tuning new skis. These stones are for working edges that have been hardened at the ski factory from misuse of the tuning equipment.                                                                                     HARD SNOW. You may find you like the final finish of the green stones in very hard snow.

Polishing Stones.  The purpose of polishing stones is to allow you to polish your edges to a finer finish and to remove any traces of burr.

We have consolidated the ENTIRE polishing process into one stone, our new ruby ceramic stones, and have thereby eliminated the need for progressive stone grit polishing.  They are incredibly effective at accomplishing the entire spectrum of polish and burr removal in a single stone.  They are constructed of the finest ruby aluminum oxide and glass. We love simplicity, these stones get us there.

Carbide Skiver.  The Carbide Skiver is a cutting insert as are the files.  However, they are used only one at a time!  A stone can be used in the other pocket when using a carbide, never another carbide, it is too much, over-kill.  But unlike files, they can be re-sharpened (see below) an infinite number of times, and they can be rotated to use up to 16 cutting surfaces before needing re-sharpening.

You can observe these two cutting edges on the carbide that show wear, one edge more than the other.  As carbide edges wear, they get rounded and shiny.  This carbide will need re-sharpening soon. (See Maximizing the Life of the Inserts below) If you do a lot of cutting with the Ski Sharp, get a Carbide Skiver, they cut edge metal like butter and last forever.  They are a one time investment.

The Carbide Skiver feels relatively dull and ineffective if you roll it in your fingers, but don’t be fooled. It is a very aggressive cutter because of its relative hardness to the ski edge.  It is easy to “over-do” with the carbide so use it with care and be conservative with it.  Use it with a light touch, let it cut at its own pace, don’t rush it.

The Carbide Skiver is a flat carbide blank, this makes it re-sharpenable an infinite number of times.  However, a white plastic shim piece needs to be used with it to create a cutting tooth.  This is the Carbide Skiver in the base edge pocket.

This is the Carbide Skiver in the side edge pocket. Again, notice the white shim piece used to form a single cutting tooth.  Keep in mind, the Carbide Skiver is mostly used in the side edge pocket for sharpening purposes. The Carbide Skiver is used in the base edge pocket only when cutting in base edge bevel initially and perhaps occasionally when re-checking base edge bevel.

It is important to use this insert correctly when cutting in bevel!  Cutting in bevel requires a number of passes, taking some edge metal each time, until your bevel selection is achieved.  However, if you continuously use the carbide in one direction you will develop striation lines on your edges, small lines that look like skip marks.  You can avoid this by reversing direction with the carbide each pass along the ski.  Say the first pass down the edge is cutting from tip to tail. You should then reverse the carbide in the Ski Sharp and cut from tail to tip.  This way you prevent the striation marks in your edges.

The Carbide Skiver leaves a very nasty burr.  After using it, major polishing is required to remove the burr; you can also polish it out lightly by hand.

The Carbide Skiver is not for cutting through rock damaged edge sections. Rock damaged edge sections must first be polished thoroughly with the green or 180 grit stones.

The Carbide Skiver needs more care when re-sharpening since the process is done up on its narrow edge rather than on the flat surface.  There are 16 cutting edges that you can use on each carbide, and you can observe when they are all worn. Close inspection will show worn areas and a shiny edge.  When re-sharpening it, it is important to hold the edge very balanced on the diamond file while rubbing it back  and forth so that there is no rocking the carbide side to side.

Maximizing the Life of the Inserts

There are two ways to maximize the life of the inserts.

1.  First, moving the inserts up and down in the side file pocket:

We are showing the Ruby Ceramic Stone raised up in the side edge pocket, that is, not fully inserted.  This allows you to get extra life out of the stone and to make quick, frequent adjustments to the stone so that fresh stone grit is always being used on the side edge. The side edge is where all the real work in edge tuning is done.  This technique is used when using either files or stones.

2.  Second, re-flattening and re-sharpening the stones and the Carbide Skiver (see Stone/Steel Inserts Maintenance).


Rock Damaged Edges

We call rock damaged edges invitations to obsessive behavior. Many tuners think they have to polish them out, that edges have to be pretty to be correctly tuned.  Don’t do it! 

You can clearly see the sheen of a finely polished edge and the ugliness of a rock scar.  Every time you hit a rock you diminish the effectiveness of your edge.  That is just the way it is.  Don’t make it worse (expand the damage) by fiddling with it.  Polish it out to the extent you can with the green stone IN THE SKI SHARP and some final polish with the ruby ceramic stones and that is all. Leave it alone beyond that.  Why?  If you attempt to polish it out by hand, you will also round off some of that nicely polished edge, exactly what you are trying to preserve.  Don’t make your edge tuning a version of cancer surgery where you have to take some good tissue to prevent the spread of the damage!  Remember, you can sharpen a rock scar so the edge then works, you just cannot make it pretty.

And, as you continually flatten the ski and tune the edges, eventually the rock scar will  disappear.  Let it go at that.  Don’t polish it by hand. 

Cutting Back the Edge Protector

This is the SkiVisions tool for cutting back the edge protector.  It is the SkiVisions Base Flattener steel blade and it is very sharp, we grind each corner of the bar so there aren’t any sharp edges that can dig into your ski sidewall.  The ends of the bar are very sharp and easily skives off edge protector plastic.

There is a narrow strip of plastic just above the top of the ski edge and you can observe it in this picture.  The problem is that, as you are tuning the ski, particularly if you use side edge bevel, that plastic clogs the inserts and slows the tuning process.  We like to skive it off on our skis a little at a time so that it is still there, doing its job, but it is out of the way when tuning.  By angling the steel blade we can push it down the edge, easily skiving off the plastic only so that it is out of our way.  Since we only take off a little at a time, this needs to be repeated from time to time, but it only takes a minute to do.

Note, some manufacturer’s use a plastic type coating on their skis, cutting back the plastic coatiing is more easily done using the same technique but using one of the Base Flattener Ruby Stone Blades instead of the steel blade.  If the steel blade is reluctant to bite and cut, wants to jump once it is cutting, or generally doesn’t want to make smooth cuts, try the Ruby Stone Blade instead using the same technique — it will work better.

Some Technical Stuff

We know not everyone is interested in technical stuff, so this is just for those who are.

Lubricants.  Should you use lubricants when tuning ski edges?  Lubricants range from water to honing oils, etc.  ABSOLUTELY NOT!  Why?  While it is true that lubricants help the cutting action of stones, the problem is, when you are tuning edges you are constantly producing “trash” in the forms of metal and dust, if you use lubricants, you promote driving the trash into the base pores, whereas if the stones are used dry, the trash can simply be wiped off.  All of the SkiVisions stones are designed to be used dry, never with lubricants.

Checking base edge bevel and converting to degrees.

To measure base edge bevel all you need is an automotive feeler gauge like the one shown, and a true bar.

You are reading the gap between the true bar and the tip of the edge.  If the feeler gauge can insert into the gap, go to a thicker gauge, until it no longer can be inserted into the gap. The prior thickness is then the amount of bevel in thousandths of an inch. You can convert that gap to degrees using the chart below.

It is unfortunate that base edge bevel was originally expressed in degrees because it is meaningless without also identifying the starting point, 1 degree with a 3/32 of an inch starting point in from the tip of the edge, as we have used on the Ski Sharp, is a good measure for base edge bevel in degrees, and is the basis for the conversion in the chart below.  If the start point was, say, 1/2 inch from the tip of the edge, the ski would have so much bevel it would be un-skiable.  What is important when measuring base edge bevel is the distance as measured by the feeler gauge shown above rather than the degree of angle.

The following chart shows the thousandths of inches measured by the feeler gauge comparison to the degree setting on the Ski Sharp (base edge).

Degree setting                .5        1        1.5        2        2.5        3

Inches (thousandths)    .0015    .003     .004     .005     .006     .007

Keep in mind, anything over .005 (2 degrees) means that the ski has to be tipped very high on edge to get the edge to bite, something that should only be done by tuners looking for a specific effect.
Also, keep in mind that if you frequently ski very hard and man-made snow that your inside edge will wear very quickly, meaning, the base edge bevel will INCREASE due to that wear.  When that happens, you need to flatten the entire base with the SkiVisions Base Flattener with ruby stone blades to bring the entire base and edges in proper plane with each other.  The easiest way to track edge wear on the inside edge is by using this feeler gauge technique.

Setting base edge at true zero

We carefully set each Ski Sharp base edge file at true zero, it is the basis for the accuracy of the tool and we designed adjustability into the base file clip for that purpose. Here is how we do it.

To check if your Ski Sharp base edge is set at true zero, first turn the base edge bevel screw on the top to zero and tighten the screw on the underside all the way so the base plate is snug to the base file holder.  Then using a true bar, slide it along the base edge file and along the base piece of the tool to see if the true bar just “kisses” the file, it brushes the file so that you know it is precisely on the same plane as the base piece of the tool AND  as you pass the true bar off and back onto the file there is no “clicking” at the edges of the file.  Remember to once again loosen the screw on the underside about 1/2 to 1 turn so there is some play for the adjuster range.

If the true bar is not “kissing” the file, and/or it clicks as it travels off and onto the file, the base clip needs adjusting.  Using a #1 Phillips screwdriver, adjust the two small screws until the true bar makes precise but not excessive contact with the file.  Any turns of the screw are VERY minor, usually less than 1/16 turn.

Safety Rules

Maintain a firm grip on the Ski Sharp and keep your fingers away from the sharp metal ski edges. As said before, and as your Ski Patrol knows, edges are cutlery.

Your ski must be held in a ski vise when using the Ski Sharp.

Keep the tool clean and replace any worn or damaged parts.

The following videos relate to how to use the Ski Sharp.

SkiVisions Edge tuning with our SkiSharp Part 1

SkiVisions Edge tuning with our SkiSharp Part 2

SkiVisions using our tuning stick

SkiVisions Maintaining Cutting Inserts, Base Flattener Stones, HS Steel Bar & Files

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Toko (Red Creek) Rotating Brush Instructions

User Guide for Rotating (Roto) Brushes


To protect the eyes we recommend the use of protective glasses whenever working with rotating brushes. Make sure no one is standing close to the drill without eye protection.


With the exception of the brass and horsehair brushes having a rotating speed of approx. 800 per minute -the normal working speed is between 2500 and 3000 rpm without using any pressure on the rotating brushes.


Brushing out like professionals:

Before waxing:
Brass brush: To be used before waxing for the pre-cleaning of the ski base. The recommended rotating speed is approx. 800 per minute. Please work only with single shaft with plexi hood without
using any pressure.

– After drawing (scraping) off the wax layer using the acrylic glass blade (plexi-scraper):

First step: Remaining wax is brushed out of the base using the horsehair brush. This gives the base a matte surface whereby wax-residues remain at the depth of the base structures.

Second step: The remaining wax of the base structure is brushed out using the nylon brush until
no wax particles are visible anymore. Now the base has to be polished for getting a perfect High-Glass finish.

The black nylon brush is especially suitable for polishing with optimum finish for all waxes. Can be used as a universal brush.

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